The Standard Model describes two basic types of particles:

Matter particles:
6 quarks
6 leptons
Force carriers:
1 photon
8 gluons
3 vector bosons

The quarks and leptons also have corresponding anti particles. The most important difference between a particle and its corresponding anti particle is that their electrical charges have opposite signs.

The Standard Model also includes the so called Higgs particle, which is thought to be responsible the different masses of the particles.